Manila Metro Rail Transit System

Transit system in Manila

4 ft 8+12 in) standard gaugeMinimum radius of curvatureMainline:
160–370 m (520–1,210 ft)
Depot:
28–100 m (92–328 ft)ElectrificationOverhead lines[a][c][e]
Third rail[d]Average speed45 km/h (28 mph)[a]Top speed60 km/h (37 mph)[a]
Metro Manila Rail Network Map

Metro Manila rail network.svg

The Manila Metro Rail Transit System (MRTS or MRT) is one of the two rapid transit systems serving Metro Manila in the Philippines along with the Manila Light Rail Transit System (LRTS). It originally began as a single line (Line 3) that was first opened in 1999 and became fully operational by 2000. Since then, most of the newly proposed rapid rail lines within Metro Manila that are not under the jurisdiction of the Light Rail Transit Authority is associated with the "MRT" brand. This includes the Metro Manila Subway (Line 9) and the elevated Line 7 which are being built as of September 2022.

Network

There is currently only one light metro/light rail line in operation but there are three heavy rail lines under construction. In recent years, there are proposals to extend the system. The system is intended to have seven lines as of 2019, with at least 49 stations across 124.4 kilometers (77.3 mi) of track. Until 2019, almost all proposed lines were given odd numbers.

Not included is MRT Line 7's proposed circumferential–radial network, as well as Lines 8, 10,[3][4][5] and 11.[6] These are still awaiting approval as of 2022.

The system is open from 4:40 a.m. PHT (UTC+8) until 10:10 p.m. on a daily basis.[7] During Holy Week, a public holiday in the Philippines, the rail system is closed for annual maintenance, owing to fewer commuters and traffic around the metro. Normal operation resumes after Easter Sunday.[8] During the Christmas and year-end holidays, the operating hours of the line are shortened due to the low ridership of the line during the holidays.[9]

Line number and color Opened Last extension Termini Stations Type Length
Line 3 December 15, 1999 (1999-12-15) North Avenue Taft Avenue 13 Rapid Transit 16.9 km (10.5 mi)
Line 4[10] 2028[11] (projected) N. Domingo Taytay 11 Monorail 15.5 km (9.6 mi)
Makati Subway[12][13][14] 2025[15] (projected) Amorsolo Sampaguita 13 Heavy rail 11 km (6.8 mi)
Line 7[16][17] 2023[18] (projected) North Triangle Common Station San Jose del Monte 14 Heavy rail 22.8 km (14.2 mi)
Metro Manila Subway[19] 2025[20] (projected) East Valenzuela Bicutan 15 Heavy rail 36 km (22 mi)
Lines and stations in italics are either under construction, not yet operational, or have been closed.

History

Early planning

During the construction of the first line of the Manila Light Rail Transit System in the early 1980s, Electrowatt Engineering Services of Zürich designed a comprehensive plan for a metro service in Metro Manila. The plan—still used as the basis for planning new metro lines—consisted of a 150-kilometer (93 mi) network of rapid transit lines spanning all major corridors within 20 years.[21] The study integrated two studies in the 1970s which recommended the construction of five heavy rail lines in Metro Manila, and another study in 1977 which was used as the basis for the LRT Line 1.[22]

Initial construction

The first line, the MRT Line 3, began construction in October 1996 after the Metro Rail Transit Corporation, a consortium of local companies, was awarded a build-lease-transfer contract. In 1997, MRTC entered into a turnkey contract with Sumitomo Corporation and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries for the line's construction.[23] Sumitomo and Mitsubishi subcontracted EEI Corporation for the civil works, while a separate agreement was signed with ČKD Tatra for the rolling stock.[23] Funding for the project was sourced from loans from various banks in Japan and the Czech Republic, with the help of JP Morgan.[23] The Department of Transportation and Communications (later the Department of Transportation) hired SYSTRA for the consultancy services, while the MRTC hired ICF Kaiser Engineers and Constructors to provide program management and technical oversight of the services for the design, construction management, and commissioning.[23]

The line partially opened on December 15, 1999, and became fully operational on July 20, 2000.[24] The line remains the only operational line in the system.

Infrastructure

Stations

Most stations of the system are elevated, with some at-grade and underground stations. The stations have a standard layout, with a concourse level and a platform level. Most stations of the MRT Line 3 have side platforms. Line 3 stations have a standard platform length of 130 meters (430 ft), enough to accommodate four-car train operations, although the line is currently operating with three-car trains.[25] Future lines will have platform lengths ranging from 140 to 210 meters (460 to 690 ft), with the former being implemented in the Makati Intra-city Subway for six-car trains[2] and the latter in the Metro Manila Subway for eight-car trains.[26]

The platform and concourse areas are separated by fare gates. Concourse areas have ticket booths, customer service areas, and at least one stall serving food or drinks.

As of February 1, 2012, folding bicycles are allowed to be brought into Line 3 trains provided that the wheels do not exceed more than 20 inches (51 cm) in diameter.[27]

Stations in Line 5 and the Metro Manila Subway will be equipped with platform screen doors.[2][26]

Rolling stock

Presently, light rail vehicles are only operating in the system. Electric multiple units will be introduced when Line 7 and the Metro Manila Subway opens.

Line 3

A train of the MRT Line 3

Line 3's rolling stock has a three-car length of 95.16 meters (312.2 ft), with each car having a length of 31.72 meters (104.1 ft) and a width of 2.5 meters (8.2 ft). The first-generation cars (numbered from either 000 or 3000), built by ČKD Tatra in Prague, Czech Republic, are currently being used in the system. The first-generation trains were refurbished from 2008 to 2009, 2017, and since 2019 as part of the MRT Line 3 rehabilitation project. The second-generation trains (numbered from 3100), built by CRRC Dalian in Dalian, China, were procured in 2014 and delivered from 2015 to 2017 to expand the capacity of the line. However, the second-generation trains were met with controversy, causing it to not be regularly deployed in revenue service. The issues with the second-generation trains include its incompatibility with the signalling system,[28] and the trains' tare weight weighing more than the required weight in the bidding documents.[29] Nevertheless, the trains underwent trial runs in 2018 and 2019,[30] and were seen in regular operations from 2020 to 2021.[31]

Each car has a capacity of 394 passengers. A three-car train set can carry 1,182 passengers, while a four-car train can carry 1,576 passengers.[23]

Line 4

Trains on the MRT Line 4 will use monorail trains. The manufacturer of the Line 4 trains are yet to be determined.[11]

Makati Subway

Six-car electric multiple unit trains will be operated on the Makati Subway. The leading cars would have a length of 24.4 meters (80 ft), while the intermediate cars would have a length of 22.8 meters (75 ft). A six-car trainset is 140 meters (460 ft) long and 3 meters (9.8 ft) wide. The trains would be semi-automatically operated (ATO GoA 2).[32]

Line 7

Hyundai Rotem was awarded the contract in January 2016 to supply 108 electric multiple unit train cars, configurable to 36 three-car train sets.[33] Originally slated to be delivered by 2018, deliveries would only begin by September 2021 due to the absence of a depot, in which construction could not commence due to right-of-way and expropriation issues. A three-car train set is 65.45 meters (214.7 ft) long.[34] The trains are capable of operating at a six-car formation.

Metro Manila Subway

Like the trains on Lines 5 and 7, trains on the Metro Manila Subway will consist of electric multiple units. In December 2020, the DOTr entered into a contract with the Japan Transport Engineering Company and Sumitomo Corporation to supply thirty eight-car train sets, comprising 240 train vehicles.[35] The trains will have a length of 200 meters (660 ft), with each car having a length of 20 meters (66 ft) and a width of 2.95 meters (9.7 ft). The trains will also be equipped with automatic train operation, allowing automated driving.[26] The trains are scheduled to be fully delivered by March 2027.[35] It would be powered from overhead lines with a voltage of 1,500 volts, similar to the Makati Subway.

Signalling

Various signalling systems are being implemented in the system. Fixed block systems are present in all lines except for some lines which use a moving block system.

The signalling systems across all lines have different suppliers. Line 3's signalling system was supplied by Bombardier Transportation.[36] Line 7's signalling system, on the other hand, will be supplied by Hyundai Rotem, along with the communications system.[33] The Metro Manila Subway will employ a signalling system based on communications-based train control provided by Nippon Signal.[37]

One of the key components of the signalling system is the automatic train protection system, intended to maintain a safe speed and operation on trains. Line 9 trains would have a minimal functionality of automatic train operation. Some lines would have other components that works with the signalling system, like automatic train supervision, which directs train operations.[38]

Line Supplier Solution Type Commission Date Remarks/notes
Line 3 Bombardier CITYFLO 250 Fixed block 2021[39] Upgraded system with fiber optic cables and new lights[40]
Line 4 unknown TBC None
Makati Subway
Line 7 Hyundai Rotem unknown
Metro Manila Subway Nippon Signal[37] SPARCS[37] Moving block CBTC[26]
Former
Line 3 Bombardier CITYFLO 250[39] Fixed block 1999 Original system with copper cables; decommissioned by 2021

Fares

Like the Manila Light Rail Transit System, the Manila Metro Rail Transit System uses a distance-based fare structure for all of its lines. Based on publicly available information however, the fares for the Makati Subway will be 20% to 25% higher than the fares of Line 3 and Line 1.

Ticketing

Two types of tickets consist: a single-journey ticket and stored value cards. Since the system's opening in 1999, magnetic tickets were used. The single-journey tickets are valid on the day of purchase, while stored value cards are valid for three months.[41] The magnetic tickets have since been replaced with the Beep, a contactless smart card which is being used since 2015 in all Manila LRT and MRT lines. The Beep stored value cards are valid for four years from the date of purchase.

Expansion

Since then, numerous proposals were planned to expand the system. As of 2022, there are three lines under construction.

MRT Line 7

The MRT Line 7 is a 22-kilometer (14 mi), 14-station heavy rail line running in a northeast–southwest direction, starting from the San Jose del Monte station in Bulacan to the North Triangle Common Station in Quezon City. First proposed in 2001 and approved in 2004,[42][43] the project was repeatedly delayed due to right-of-way issues. It was re-approved in 2013 and construction on the line began in 2017.

MRT Line 4

The MRT Line 4 is a monorail line linking Metro Manila and the province of Rizal. It was first approved in 2015.[10] The project, at its current form, was approved in 2019 and is under the design stage.[44] Construction on the 15.5-kilometer (9.6 mi) line is slated to begin by 2022, and full operations are slated by 2028.[45]

Makati Intra-city Subway

The Makati Intra-city Subway is a 10-kilometer (6.2 mi), 10-station fully underground line running in the center of Makati. It is built under a public-private partnership program between the Makati City Government and a private consortium led by Philippine Infradev Holdings. Construction began in 2018 and will be operational by 2025 or 2026.[15]

Metro Manila Subway

The Metro Manila Subway is a 36-kilometer (22 mi) underground heavy rail line. It was first planned in 2000, and again in 2014. Funded by a loan from Japan, construction began in 2019 and is slated to partially operate by 2025.[20]

Network map

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Line 3
  2. ^ Most lines
  3. ^ a b c Line 5
  4. ^ a b c Line 7
  5. ^ a b Line 9
  6. ^ 3–4 cars for Line 3, 6 cars for Line 5,[2] 8 cars for Line 9

References

  1. ^ a b Fernandez, Daniza (January 24, 2022). "45.6 million commuters ride MRT-3 in 2021". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved March 9, 2022.
  2. ^ a b c City Government of Makati; Philippine Infradev Holdings, Inc.; Lichel Technologies, Inc. (March 2019). MAKATI PUBLIC RAIL TRANSPORT SYSTEM PROJECT (PDF) (Report). Retrieved January 10, 2022.
  3. ^ de Vera, Ben O. (November 18, 2019). "Tycoons' unsolicited PPP projects bolster "Build, Build, Build"". Inquirer.net. Retrieved December 22, 2019.
  4. ^ "C5 MRT 10 Project". Public-Private Partnership Center. Retrieved December 22, 2019.
  5. ^ Ordinario, Cai (October 1, 2018). "NEDA reviews proposal for MRT 10, 2 other infrastructure projects". BusinessMirror. Retrieved December 22, 2019.
  6. ^ "MRT-11 project". www.ppp.gov.ph. Public-Private Partnership Center. Retrieved October 31, 2020.
  7. ^ Luna, Franco (March 29, 2022). "MRT-3 deploys 4-car, 3-car train sets simultaneously". The Philippine Star. Retrieved April 13, 2022.
  8. ^ Mendoza, John Eric (March 16, 2022). "MRT-3 operations suspended from April 13 to 17". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved April 13, 2022.
  9. ^ Grecia, Leandre (December 21, 2021). "Here are the LRT-1, LRT-2, MRT-3 schedules for Christmas 2021". Top Gear Philippines. Retrieved April 13, 2022.
  10. ^ a b Flores, Mikhail Franz E. (June 16, 2015). "Major infrastructure projects lined up". BusinessWorld. Retrieved July 6, 2015.
  11. ^ a b Camus, Miguel (October 4, 2021). "DOTr reveals MRT 4 will be a monorail project, targets full operations by 2028". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved January 10, 2022.
  12. ^ Magano, Louie (July 27, 2018). "The Makati Subway". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  13. ^ Lagrimas, Nicole-Anne C. (August 22, 2018). "Makati City, IRC consortium likely to break ground for subway project by year-end". GMA News Online. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  14. ^ Esguerra, Darryl John (August 23, 2018). "Construction of Makati City subway system to start in December". Inquirer.net. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  15. ^ a b Lagrimas, Nicole-Anne C. (August 22, 2018). "Makati City, IRC consortium likely to break ground for subway project by year-end". GMA News Online. Archived from the original on September 19, 2018. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  16. ^ Cruz, Neal. (November 14, 2007). "MRT 7 may end Metro traffic problems". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on February 2, 2008. Retrieved March 14, 2009.
  17. ^ "Marubeni to build $1B Philippine rail project". Inquirer.net. Agence France-Presse. May 15, 2012.
  18. ^ "MRT-7 more than 50% complete, set to open by Dec. 2022". CNN Philippines. February 19, 2021. Archived from the original on July 13, 2021. Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  19. ^ "DOTr eyes Feb. 27 Metro Manila subway launch". Manila Bulletin News. February 16, 2019. Retrieved February 16, 2019.
  20. ^ a b Mercurio, Richmond (April 19, 2022). "Metro Manila subway partial opening moved to 2025 – DOTr". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on April 19, 2022. Retrieved April 19, 2022.
  21. ^ "Light Rail Transit Authority Company History". Light Rail Transit Authority. Archived from the original on September 24, 2014. Retrieved September 13, 2014.
  22. ^ Jose, Ricardo; Mabazza, Daniel; Lagman, Marco Stefan; Villasper, Jonathan. "Planning Metro Manila's Mass Transit System" (PDF). University of the Philippines Diliman. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 20, 2017. Retrieved March 9, 2022.
  23. ^ a b c d e "About". Metro Rail Transit. Retrieved March 13, 2022.
  24. ^ "Miracle rail project to rid Edsa of jams". New Straits Times. The New Straits Times Press (M) Bhd. December 15, 1999. Retrieved March 13, 2022 – via Google News Archive.
  25. ^ Procurement of MRT3 Capacity Expansion Project Lot 2 : Upgrade of Ancillary Systems (PDF) (Report). 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 9, 2021. Retrieved March 13, 2022.
  26. ^ a b c d Part 2 – Employer’s Requirements (PDF). METRO MANILA SUBWAY PROJECT PHASE 1 Package CP107: Rolling Stock (Report). Department of Transportation (Philippines). Retrieved March 13, 2022.{{cite report}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  27. ^ News, CARMELA G. LAPEÑA, GMA. "Bike to work? Why not? MRT now allows folding bikes". GMA News Online. Retrieved May 15, 2022. {{cite web}}: |last= has generic name (help)
  28. ^ Santos, Jamil Joseph (February 3, 2018). "Koko demands P3.8-B refund from Dalian, blacklisting of MRT3 supplier". GMA News. Retrieved March 13, 2022.
  29. ^ Lagrimas, Nicole-Anne C. (October 10, 2017). "Poe grills transport execs; JV says trains bought from China apparently too heavy for MRT-3 tracks". GMA News. Retrieved March 13, 2022.
  30. ^ Talabong, Rambo (October 27, 2018). "After years of delay, DOTr begins adding Dalian trains to MRT3". Rappler. Retrieved March 13, 2022.
  31. ^ "MRT to have 4 additional trains on Monday, train speed also to get boost: DOTr". ABS-CBN News. May 31, 2020. Retrieved March 13, 2022.
  32. ^ City Government of Makati; Philippine Infradev Holdings, Inc.; Lichel Technologies, Inc. (March 2019). MAKATI PUBLIC RAIL TRANSPORT SYSTEM PROJECT (PDF) (Report). Retrieved March 13, 2022.
  33. ^ a b Barrow, Keith (January 25, 2016). "Hyundai Rotem trains for Manila Line 7". International Railway Journal. Retrieved March 13, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  34. ^ Amojelar, Darwin G. (September 1, 2021). "San Miguel expects to receive delivery of first batch of Korea-made MRT-7 trains next week". Manila Standard. Retrieved March 13, 2022.
  35. ^ a b "Order Received to Supply 240 Train Cars for Philippines' Metro Manila Subway". Sumitomo Corporation. December 21, 2020. Retrieved March 3, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  36. ^ Pateña, Aerol John (February 9, 2018). "Bombardier to supply parts, signalling system for MRT upgrade anew". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved March 13, 2022.
  37. ^ a b c Nippon Signal receives the order of Signalling System for Metro Manila Subway Project in the Philippines (PDF) (Report). Nippon Signal. May 19, 2022. Retrieved May 21, 2022.
  38. ^ Part 2 – Employer’s Requirements (PDF). METRO MANILA SUBWAY PROJECT PHASE 1 Package CP106: E&M Systems and Track Works (Report). Department of Transportation (Philippines). Retrieved March 13, 2022.
  39. ^ a b "Alstom in the Philippines" (PDF). Alstom. November 2021. Retrieved March 13, 2022.
  40. ^ "MAGANDANG BALITA! 100% testing & commissioning ng bago at upgraded signaling system ng MRT-3, nakamit na!". Facebook. November 2, 2021. Archived from the original on February 26, 2022. Retrieved March 13, 2022.
  41. ^ "MRT3 Reminders". Metro Rail Transit Line 3. Metro Rail Transit Corporation. Archived from the original on August 19, 2014. Retrieved April 7, 2022.
  42. ^ Devio, Lea (July 23, 2021). "MRT-7 60.93% complete". The Manila Times. Archived from the original on July 23, 2021. Retrieved March 13, 2022.
  43. ^ Ferriols, Des (March 29, 2004). "NEDA body approves MRT Line 7". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on July 6, 2020. Retrieved March 13, 2022.
  44. ^ "Cabinet-level body approves ₱59.3-billion MRT-4 project". CNN Philippines. December 31, 2019. Retrieved March 13, 2022.
  45. ^ Mercurio, Richmond (October 1, 2021). "P1.4 billion MRT consultancy contract signed today". The Philippine Star. Retrieved March 13, 2022.
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