British Columbia Highway 99
Fraser Delta Thruway
Duffey Lake Road
A map of southwestern British Columbia with Hwy 99 highlighted in red
|Maintained by British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure|
|Length||377 km (234 mi)|
|South end||I-5 at Canada–United States border in Surrey|
|Major intersections|| Hwy 91 in Delta|
Hwy 17 in Delta
Hwy 17A in Delta
Hwy 91 in Richmond
Hwy 7 in Vancouver
Hwy 1 (TCH) in West Vancouver
Hwy 12 in Lillooet
|North end||Hwy 97 near Cache Creek|
|Regional districts||North Vancouver, West Vancouver, Squamish, Whistler, Lillooet|
|Major cities||Delta, Surrey, Richmond, Vancouver|
|Villages||Lions Bay, Pemberton|
Highway 99, also known as the Fraser Delta Thruway south of Vancouver, and the Sea to Sky Highway, Squamish Highway, or Whistler Highway north of Vancouver, is the major north–south artery running through the Greater Vancouver area of British Columbia from the U.S. border, up Howe Sound through the Sea to Sky Country to Lillooet, and connecting to Highway 97 just north of Cache Creek. The highway's number was derived from the former U.S. Route 99, with which the highway originally connected to at the border. The highway currently connects with Interstate 5 at the United States border.
The total length of Highway 99 from the U.S. border to the Highway 97 junction is 377 kilometres (234 mi). In 2006 the UK's The Guardian newspaper listed the Sea to Sky as the fifth best road trip worldwide.
South Surrey to Richmond
In the south, Highway 99 begins at the British Columbia – Washington State border crossing at Douglas, on the Canadian side of Peace Arch Park, as a continuation of Interstate 5. The highway begins with a four-lane freeway configuration. Highway 99 travels through Surrey 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) due northwest from the border, through four interchanges, and then turns west for 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) before reaching the junction with Highway 91, marking the highway's entry into the City of Delta. Four km (2½ mi) west, Highway 99 reaches its junction with Ladner Trunk Road (formerly Highway 10). Eight km (5 mi) north, Highway 99 reaches a junction with Highway 17A. Another 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) northwest, Highway 99 crosses into Richmond through the George Massey Tunnel, also known as the Deas Tunnel or Deas Island Tunnel. From Surrey to Delta, the speed limit is 100 kilometres per hour (62 mph).
Through Richmond, Highway 99 travels 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) north from the Steveston Highway interchange, at the north mouth of the tunnel, to a junction which connects to the Westminster Highway, Knight Street, and western end of Highway 91. Another 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) northwest, the southern freeway section of Highway 99 ends as the highway crosses the North Arm of the Fraser River, over the Oak Street Bridge, into Vancouver.
The 30-kilometre (19 mi) long route through Vancouver's city streets starts off going north on Oak Street to the intersection with West 70th Avenue. Highway 99 then goes west on West 70th Avenue,[i] and then north along Granville Street for 7 kilometres (4.3 mi), 41st Avenue is used as an alternate signed connection between Granville and Oak Streets. It crosses over False Creek (via the Granville Street Bridge) into the downtown core. Highway 99 north goes through the downtown area by way of Seymour Street (southbound it uses Howe Street) and Georgia Street, through Stanley Park, and over the Lions Gate Bridge into West Vancouver at Marine Drive.
Trans-Canada Highway/Upper Levels Highway
In West Vancouver, Highway 99 goes west on Marine Drive and north on Taylor Way, to Highway 1. Highway 99 shares the Upper Levels Highway with Highway 1 for 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) west, diverging from Highway 1 near the BC Ferries terminal at Horseshoe Bay.
Sea to Sky Highway and Duffey Lake Road
The "Sea to Sky Highway" is the name given to the section of Highway 99 from Horseshoe Bay to Pemberton. From Horseshoe Bay, the highway travels along the coast of Howe Sound. It continues for 12 km (7.5 mi) to Lions Bay, north for another 21 km (13 mi), crossing into the Squamish-Lillooet Regional District en route to Britannia Beach, and north for 11 km (6.8 mi) to Squamish, at the head of Howe Sound. From Squamish, it continues north for another 58 km (36 mi) to Whistler, and then to Pemberton 32 km (20 mi) later, where the Sea-to-Sky Highway ends and Duffey Lake Road begins. This section of road parallels several rivers and water bodies, including the Squamish River, the Cheakamus River, and Daisy Lake, which flow south toward Howe Sound. In Whistler, near Alta Lake, the road crosses a watershed, and north of this point, the road follows the Green River and Lillooet River which flow north and east toward Lillooet Lake, and ultimately towards the Fraser River. The speed limit of the Sea-to-Sky Highway ranges from 80 to 100 km/h (50 to 62 mph) with 60 km/h (37 mph) sections in Lions Bay, Britannia Beach and parts of Squamish.
After passing Lillooet Lake, the highway climbs a steep grade to Joffre Lakes Provincial Park, and shortly after passes through Cayoosh Pass, the highest point on the highway at 1,275 m (4,183 ft). East of the pass the road follows the course of Cayoosh Creek as it traverses the southern base of Mount Rohr and skirts Duffey Lake Provincial Park. As Duffey Lake Road, after winding almost 99 km (62 mi) northeast in very steep mountains where sometimes the advisory speed limit is 20 km/h (12 mph), and is legally posted as 60 km/h (37 mph) throughout. Highway 99 reaches the junction with Highway 12 at Lillooet, and then goes northeast for another 75 km (47 mi) to its northern terminus at its junction with Highway 97, just north of Cache Creek and just south of Clinton.
This highway received the "99" designation, matching U.S. Route 99, in 1942 after completion of the King George VI Highway (1940) to the U.S. border. It originally shared an alignment with Highway 1 from Surrey to Vancouver via the Pattullo Bridge and Kingsway. The current freeway alignment of Highway 99 between 8th Avenue in South Surrey and the North Arm of the Fraser River opened in 1962 as Hwy. 99 and was called the Deas (Island) Throughway. Between 1964 and 1973, the freeway alignment of Highway 99 was designated Highway 499. The Oak Street Bridge was built in 1957 to cross the North Arm Fraser River, and the Deas Island Tunnel was built 1957–59 (renamed the George Massey Tunnel in 1967) to cross the Fraser River. Tolls were collected at the crossings until April 1 1964. The four-lane, 35-kilometre (22 mi) freeway between the tunnel and the American border was opened on May 29, 1962, by Premier W. A. C. Bennett and Washington Governor Albert D. Rosellini. It cost $57 million to construct and was funded by the provincial government.
In 1957, the northern end of Highway 99 was moved from downtown Vancouver, across the Lions Gate Bridge and west to the village of Horseshoe Bay, following Marine Drive through West Vancouver. Highway 99 was re-aligned via Taylor Way, just east of the Park Royal Shopping Centre, to the Upper Levels Highway and extended to Britannia Beach one year later, extending to Squamish in 1959, and to Pemberton in 1966. Finally, in 1992, the just-paved Duffey Lake Road between Pemberton and Lillooet was made part of Highway 99, and the section of Highway 12 between Lillooet and Highway 97 was re-numbered 99. The portion of the highway between Lillooet and Pavilion was part of the route of the Old Cariboo Road.
The Sea to Sky Highway section of Highway 99 has a checkered history. Built on a steep cliff overlooking Howe Sound, it was a two-lane undivided highway with no outside barrier. Many motorists have lost their lives on it due to inclement weather, poor visibility, speeding, passing slower vehicles, or drunk driving.
As part of the 2010 Winter Olympics bid, the British Columbia provincial government authorized an upgrade of the highway to accommodate greater traffic loads, widening the highway and adding a concrete divider. Starting in 2002 a large section was upgraded between Squamish and Whistler that had already seen major improvements during the 1980s. The Sea to Sky is a freeway from the interchange with Highway 1 to the at-grade intersection with Lawrence Way. After that, there are sporadic interchanges and at-grade intersections. It is mostly a divided highway all the way to Lions Bay and through Squamish.
On-site protests delayed part of the construction. Protesters claimed that a tunnel under Eagleridge Bluffs was a safer and environmentally friendlier alternative. A court injunction and police were used to remove the protestors, one of whom, Harriet Nahanee, a respected Squamish elder, died soon after in the Surrey Pre-Trial Centre from health complications alleged to be related to her arrest and incarceration.
From south to north:
I-5 south – Bellingham, Seattle
|Continues into Washington|
|Canada – United States border at Peace Arch Border Crossing|
|0.60||0.37||1||Beach Road||At-grade intersection|
|1.60||0.99||2||8 Avenue (Hwy 914:3186 east) to Hwy 1 / Hwy 15 – USA Border, Pacific X-ing, White Rock||Signed as exits 2A (east) and 2B (west) southbound; former Hwy 99A north|
|7.27||4.52||8A||152 Street south||Southbound exit only|
|7.66||4.76||8B||32 Avenue, 152 Street north||Southbound exit and northbound entrance|
|9.63||5.98||10||King George Boulevard – Surrey City Centre||No access to Hwy 99 southbound from King George northbound; former Hwy 99A|
|Delta||15.56||9.67||16||Hwy 91 north – North Delta, New Westminster||Alternate route to Richmond, Vancouver International Airport, and Vancouver.|
|20.36||12.65||20||Ladner Trunk Road – South Delta||Northbound access to Boundary Bay Airport; former Hwy 10|
|23.61||14.67||23||80 Street||Southbound exit only; access to Boundary Bay Airport|
|25.37||15.76||26||Hwy 17 (South Fraser Perimeter Road) to Hwy 1 east – Tsawwassen ferry terminal, Victoria, Nanaimo, Hope||Hwy 17 exit 13; no direct access from Hwy 99 north to Hwy 17 east; Victoria and Nanaimo are via BC Ferries|
|27.86||17.31||28||Hwy 17A south / River Road – Ladner|
|28.60||17.77||29||River Road south||Southbound exit only|
|George Massey Tunnel under the South Arm Fraser River|
|35.68||22.17||36||Westminster Highway||Northbound exit and southbound entrance|
|36.71||22.81||37||Hwy 91 east – North Delta, Surrey||No access to Alderbridge Way|
|37.33||23.20||38||Shell Road||Southbound exit and northbound entrance|
|38.31||23.80||39B||No. 4 Road||Southbound exit only|
|38.91||24.18||39A||Sea Island Way (Hwy 911:2923 east) – Airport (YVR)||No northbound exit|
|39||Bridgeport Road – Airport (YVR)||Northbound exit and entrance|
|Oak Street Bridge over the North Arm Fraser River|
|Vancouver||40.69||25.28||41||Southwest Marine Drive||Signed as 41A (Marine Drive east) and 41B (Marine Drive west) northbound; no southbound exit number; becomes Oak Street|
|North end of freeway|
|40.86||25.39||West 70th Avenue||Hwy 99 branches west onto 70th Avenue (officially); left turns prohibited; Hwy 99 signed on both Oak and Granville Streets|
|South end of City of Vancouver jurisdiction|
|44.5||27.7||West 41st Avenue||Signed Hwy 99 connection between Oak Street and Granville Street|
|47.4||29.5||West 12th Avenue||To Hwy 1 (TCH) east|
|47.7||29.6||West Broadway (Hwy 7 east)||Signed Hwy 99 connection between Oak Street and Granville Street|
|48.2||30.0||West 4th Avenue, Fir Street south||Interchange; 4th Avenue is southbound exit and northbound entrance; Fir Street is southbound exit only|
|Granville Street Bridge over False Creek|
|49.1||30.5||Seymour Street, Howe Street|
|One-way transition; northbound Hwy 99 follows Seymour Street, southbound Hwy 99 followes Howe Street; left exit to Granville Street|
|49.9||31.0||Nelson Street (to Cambie Street)||One-way, southeast-bound; provides access to the Cambie Bridge|
|50.1||31.1||Smithe Street||One-way, northwest-bound; provides access from the Cambie Bridge|
Seymour Street, Howe Street
|Former Hwy 1A / Hwy 99A south; Hwy 99 turns onto Georgia Street; south end of former Hwy 1A concurrency|
|50.8||31.6||Burrard Street||Provides access to the Burrard Bridge|
|52.40||32.56||North end of City of Vancouver jurisdiction • Enters Stanley Park|
|52.71||32.75||North Lagoon Drive||Grade separated; no southbound exit|
|54.38||33.79||Stanley Park Drive||Grade separated; no southbound entrance; closed during peak hours|
|54.70||33.99||Exits Stanley Park|
|Vancouver–West Vancouver boundary||54.70–|
|Lions Gate Bridge over Burrard Inlet|
|West Vancouver||56.52||35.12||To Hwy 1 (TCH) / Marine Drive, Capilano Road – North Vancouver (city)||Interchange; Hwy 99 branches west onto Marine Drive|
|56.91||35.36||Marine Drive / Taylor Way||Hwy 99 branches north onto Taylor Way|
|58.09||36.10||13||Hwy 1 (TCH) east / Taylor Way – North Vancouver (district), Vancouver||Interchange; former Hwy 1A western terminus; south end of Hwy 1 concurrency; exit numbers follow Hwy 1|
|South end of freeway|
|59.72||37.11||11||15th Street, Cross Creek Road|
|60.63||37.67||10||21st Street, Westhill Drive||No southbound exit|
|61.28||38.08||10||22nd Street||Southbound exit only|
|62.72||38.97||8||Cypress Bowl Road|
|64.29||39.95||7||Wentworth Avenue, Westmount Road|
|66.96||41.61||4||Woodgreen Drive, Headland Drive|
|68.76||42.73||3||Hwy 1 (TCH) west to Hwy 101 – Horseshoe Bay ferry terminal, Nanaimo, Gibsons||Eagle Ridge Interchange; northbound exit and southbound entrance|
North end of Hwy 1 concurrency; Hwy 101, Nanaimo and Gibsons are via BC Ferries; Sea to Sky Highway south end
|69.37||43.10||2||Eagleridge Drive, Marine Drive to Hwy 911:2924 north||Northbound exit and southbound entrance|
|72.57||45.09||Horseshoe Bay Drive (Hwy 911:2924 south) to Marine Drive||Southbound exit and northbound entrance|
|73.99||45.98||Seascape Drive, Ansell Place||U-turn route|
|North end of freeway|
|74.67||46.40||Lawrence Way||At-grade intersection; no northbound entrance|
|||76.48||47.52||Strachan Point Road||Southbound right-in and right-out|
|77.63||48.24||Ocean Point Drive to Strachan Point Road||Seagull intersection|
|Lions Bay||80.50||50.02||Kelvin Grove Way||Interchange|
|81.15||50.42||Lions Bay Avenue||Interchange|
|Squamish-Lillooet||||92.22||57.30||Porteau Road||Interchange; U-turn route|
|96.42||59.91||Furry Creek Drive||Northbound right-in/right-out|
|97.95||60.86||Furry Creek Drive||Southbound right-in/right-out|
|Britannia Beach||102.28||63.55||Copper Drive|
|Squamish||113.67||70.63||Cleveland Avenue, Loggers Lane||Cleaveland Avenue provides access to Downtown Squamish|
|121.00||75.19||Depot Road – Brackendale|
|123.48||76.73||Squamish Valley Road, Alice Lake Road – Paradise Valley||Alice Lake Road serves Alice Lake Provincial Park|
|||154.55||96.03||Brandywine Falls Provincial Park|
|157.79||98.05||Callaghan Valley Road – Whistler Olympic Park, Callaghan Lake Provincial Park|
|Whistler||166.46||103.43||Alta Lake Road|
|167.68||104.19||Lake Placid Road||Provides access to Creekside Village|
|171.73||106.71||Village Gate Road||Provides access to Whistler Village|
|172.36||107.10||Lorimer Road||Provides access to Upper Village|
|Pemberton||203.56||126.49||Pemberton Meadows Road, Vine Road||Sea to Sky Highway north end; Duffey Lake Road south end|
|Mount Currie||210.50||130.80||Pemberton Portage Road – D'Arcy|
|Lillooet||301.07||187.08||Seton Lake Road (Hwy 40 west) – Gold Bridge||Unofficial Hwy 40 is unsigned|
|301.58||187.39||Bridge of the Twenty-Three Camels over the Fraser River|
|302.31||187.85||Hwy 12 south – Lytton, Hope||Hwy 99 branches north; Duffey Lake Road north end|
|Thompson-Nicola||||377.04||234.28||Hwy 97 – Prince George, 100 Mile House, Cache Creek, Kamloops|
|1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi|
- ^ A left turn from Oak Street onto 70th Avenue is not permitted, but a right turn from 70th Avenue onto Oak Street is permitted.
- ^ a b Landmark Kilometre Inventory (PDF). British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure (Report). Cypher Consulting. July 2016. pp. 12–14, 515–537. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-03-11. Retrieved 2017-01-03.
- ^ "Five Best...Road Trips". The Guardian. London. 1 April 2006. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- ^ a b "Official Numbered Routes in British Columbia - Province of British Columbia". Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure. Province of British Columbia. January 3, 2019. Retrieved August 11, 2021.
- ^ "Google Maps". Google Maps. Retrieved 2019-10-28.
- ^ Shell Oil Company (1951). "Shell Street Map of Vancouver. 10-Y-1951-1." (Map). Shell Map of Vancouver and Victoria, B.C. (Vancouver side. 1:50688. 183. Shell Oil Company.
- ^ "'400' road series to be redesignated". Vancouver Sun. December 22, 1972. p. 25. Retrieved December 19, 2018 – via Newspapers.com.
- ^ "$23,000,000 Fraser River Tunnel to Be Dedicated". The Seattle Times. July 14, 1959. p. 2.
- ^ "Minister of Highways REPORT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR 1964/65". Archived from the original on 2021-12-24.
- ^ Deverell, Bill (May 30, 1962). "Brass of All Kinds on Hand For Opening of Deas Thruway". The Sun. p. 6. Retrieved February 5, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- ^ "Frontier to Freeway" (PDF). www2.gov.bc.ca. p. 20.
- ^ "Sea-to-Sky Highway Improvement Project British Columbia, Canada". Road Traffic Technology. 2009-04-11. Retrieved 2021-05-11.
- ^ "First Nations elder Harriet Nahanee (1935 - 2007)". Institute for the History of Science. 2008. Retrieved 2009-10-18.
- ^ Harriet Nahanee Did Not Die in Vain, Rafe Mair, The Tyee, March 5, 2007
- ^ Google (January 3, 2017). "Highway 99 in British Columbia" (Map). Google Maps. Google.
- ^ "Highway Exits & Landmarks". Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure. Province of British Columbia. Archived from the original on July 15, 2016. Retrieved January 3, 2017.
- Official Numbered Routes in British Columbia
- Atlin Road
- Bridge River Road
- Cecil Lake Road
- Chilliwack Lake Road
- Coalmont Road
- Columbia Valley Highway
- Deltaport Way
- Head Bay Road
- Hemlock Valley Road
- Highway 91 Connector
- Horsefly Road
- Jesmond Road
- Likely Road
- Mission Mountain Road
- Nazko Road
- Omineca Resource Road
- Pavilion Mountain Road
- Port Mellon Highway
- Queen Charlotte City–Skidegate Road
- Strathcona Parkway
- Telegraph Creek Road
- Westside Road
- Alaska Highway
- Banff–Windermere Highway
- Caribou Highway1
- Coquihalla Highway2
- Crowsnest Highway2
- Don Phillips Way
- Heritage Highway
- Inland Island Highway2
- International Selkirk Loop1
- John Hart Highway1
- Liard Highway
- Lougheed Highway1
- Mary Hill Bypass1
- Nisga'a Highway
- Northern Woods and Water Route
- Okanagan Connector2
- Okanagan Highway2
- Pacific Highway1
- Patricia Bay Highway2
- Sea to Sky Highway2
- South Fraser Perimeter Road2
- Southern Yellowhead Highway2
- Stewart–Cassiar Highway
- Sunshine Coast Highway
- Trans-Canada Highway2
- Yellowhead Highway1
- 1 highways with expressway sections
- 2 highways with expressway and freeway sections
- 3 highways under construction
- 4 designation reassigned to new route